Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), introduced 1992 by Hoogerbrugge and Koelman, is a momentum conserving, coarse-grained particle based simulation method, which has been applied for the study of various soft-matter systems. As in traditional Langevin or Brownian dynamics, some of the conservative forces, in particular those arising from myriad solvent interactions, are integrated to a combination of random fluctuating forces and (conjugate) dissipative forces (consistent with the fluctuation-dissipation theorem). In contrast with these earlier methods, the integration determines the random and dissipative forces between pairs of particles, rather than the forces on individual particles, and this enables the stochastic integration of fluctuating forces while conserving momentum rigorously.

DPD Hoogerbrugge, P. J. and Koelman, J. M. V. A., “Simulating microscopic hydrodynamic phenomena with dissipative particle dynamics”, Europhys. Lett. 19, 155 (1992).
SPH J.J. Monaghan. Introduction to SPH. Comp.Phys.Comm. 48:89–96 (1988).
FPM Espanol, P., “Fluid particle model”, Phys. Rev. E 57, 2930-2948 (1998).

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